Spices such as cardamom, ginger, clove, cinnamon, pink pepper, black pepper, Sichuan pepper, and nutmeg add wonderful notes to perfumes. Spice oils tend to be top and heart notes.
Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the fruit of Myristica fragrans, shown at right.
Cloves are the dried flowers of the tree Syzygium aromaticum, which is native to Indonesia and shown at left. The evergreen trees grow to 10-20 m tall and bear crimson flowers that are harvested and dried for clove spice and clove essential oil. The main constituent in clove responsible for its aroma is eugenol, and various synthetic eugenol aroma ingredients are available.
Sichuan pepper comes from several species of the genus Zanthoxylum and is commonly used in Chinese, Tibetan, Nepali, and Indian cuisine. The oil used in perfume has a wonderful, warm, zesty scent that is fresher and less hot than black pepper.